This book gives a concise introduction into the method and describes various experimental techniques.
Surface po. This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of optical coherent microscopy. While many other books exist on microscopy and imaging, this book provides a unique resource dedicated solely to this subject. Similarly, many books describe ap. This book presents the state of the art in nanoscale surface physics.
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It outlines contemporary trends in the field covering a wide range of topical areas: atomic structure of surfaces and interfaces, molecular films and polymer adsorption, biological. In modern scanning electron microscopy, sample surface preparation is of key importance, just as it is in transmission electron microscopy. With the procedures for sample surface preparation provided in the present book, the enormous potential of.
Crystal growth far from thermodynamic equilibrium is nothing but homoepitaxy - thin film growth on a crystalline substrate of the same material. Because of the absence of misfit effects, homoepitaxy is an ideal playground to study growth kinetics …. This is the first monograph ….
Electronic Properties of Semiconductor Interfaces | Winfried Mönch | Springer
Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces deals with structural and electronic properties of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces. The first part introduces the general aspects of space-charge layers, of clean-surface and adatom-induced surfaces …. Applications of synchrotron radiation in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology has now matured from an exotic experimental field into a well-established area of science.
The spectroscopy of molecules and molecular adsorbates on …. The first part introduces the general aspects of space-charge layers, of clean-surface and adatom-included surfaces …. In the past ten years the study of the mechanisms of chemical transformations on metal surfaces has advanced appreciably. During manufacture , dopants can be diffused into the semiconductor body by contact with gaseous compounds of the desired element, or ion implantation can be used to accurately position the doped regions.
Some materials, when rapidly cooled to a glassy amorphous state, have semiconducting properties. The history of the understanding of semiconductors begins with experiments on the electrical properties of materials. The properties of negative temperature coefficient of resistance, rectification, and light-sensitivity were observed starting in the early 19th century.
Thomas Johann Seebeck was the first to notice an effect due to semiconductors, in This is contrary to the behavior of metallic substances such as copper. In , Alexandre Edmond Becquerel reported observation of a voltage between a solid and a liquid electrolyte when struck by light, the photovoltaic effect. In Willoughby Smith observed that selenium resistors exhibit decreasing resistance when light falls on them.
In , Karl Ferdinand Braun observed conduction and rectification in metallic sulfides , although this effect had been discovered much earlier by Peter Munck af Rosenschold sv writing for the Annalen der Physik und Chemie in ,  and Arthur Schuster found that a copper oxide layer on wires has rectification properties that ceases when the wires are cleaned. A unified explanation of these phenomena required a theory of solid-state physics which developed greatly in the first half of the 20th Century. In Edwin Herbert Hall demonstrated the deflection of flowing charge carriers by an applied magnetic field, the Hall effect.
The discovery of the electron by J. Thomson in prompted theories of electron-based conduction in solids. Karl Baedeker , by observing a Hall effect with the reverse sign to that in metals, theorized that copper iodide had positive charge carriers. Johan Koenigsberger classified solid materials as metals, insulators and "variable conductors" in although his student Josef Weiss already introduced the term Halbleiter semiconductor in modern meaning in PhD thesis in In , B.
Gudden stated that conductivity in semiconductors was due to minor concentrations of impurities. By , the band theory of conduction had been established by Alan Herries Wilson and the concept of band gaps had been developed. Walter H. Schottky and Nevill Francis Mott developed models of the potential barrier and of the characteristics of a metal—semiconductor junction.
By , Boris Davydov had developed a theory of the copper-oxide rectifier, identifying the effect of the p—n junction and the importance of minority carriers and surface states. Agreement between theoretical predictions based on developing quantum mechanics and experimental results was sometimes poor. This was later explained by John Bardeen as due to the extreme "structure sensitive" behavior of semiconductors, whose properties change dramatically based on tiny amounts of impurities. This spurred the development of improved material refining techniques, culminating in modern semiconductor refineries producing materials with parts-per-trillion purity.
Quantitative aspects of ultraviolet photoemission of adsorbed xenon—a review
Devices using semiconductors were at first constructed based on empirical knowledge, before semiconductor theory provided a guide to construction of more capable and reliable devices. Alexander Graham Bell used the light-sensitive property of selenium to transmit sound over a beam of light in A working solar cell, of low efficiency, was constructed by Charles Fritts in using a metal plate coated with selenium and a thin layer of gold; the device became commercially useful in photographic light meters in the s.
However, it was somewhat unpredictable in operation and required manual adjustment for best performance. In H. Round observed light emission when electric current passed through silicon carbide crystals, the principle behind the light-emitting diode. Oleg Losev observed similar light emission in but at the time the effect had no practical use. Power rectifiers, using copper oxide and selenium, were developed in the s and became commercially important as an alternative to vacuum tube rectifiers.
The first semiconductor devices used galena , including German physicist Ferdinand Braun's crystal detector in and Bengali physicist Jagadish Chandra Bose's radio crystal detector in In the years preceding World War II, infrared detection and communications devices prompted research into lead-sulfide and lead-selenide materials. These devices were used for detecting ships and aircraft, for infrared rangefinders, and for voice communication systems. Considerable research and development of silicon materials occurred during the war to develop detectors of consistent quality.
Detector and power rectifiers could not amplify a signal. Many efforts were made to develop a solid-state amplifier and were successful in developing a device called the point contact transistor which could amplify 20db or more. In Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a device resembling a field-effect transistor , but it was not practical. Hilsch and R. Pohl in demonstrated a solid-state amplifier using a structure resembling the control grid of a vacuum tube; although the device displayed power gain, it had a cut-off frequency of one cycle per second, too low for any practical applications, but an effective application of the available theory.
Holden started investigating solid-state amplifiers in The first p—n junction in silicon was observed by Russell Ohl about , when a specimen was found to be light-sensitive, with a sharp boundary between p-type impurity at one end and n-type at the other. A slice cut from the specimen at the p—n boundary developed a voltage when exposed to light.
Shockley had earlier theorized a field-effect amplifier made from germanium and silicon, but he failed to build such a working device, before eventually using germanium to invent the point-contact transistor. In , physical chemist Morris Tanenbaum fabricated the first silicon junction transistor at Bell Labs. The first silicon semiconductor device was a silicon radio crystal detector, developed by American engineer Greenleaf Whittier Pickard in In , techniques for producing high-purity germanium and silicon crystals were developed for radar microwave detectors during World War II.
In the early years of the semiconductor industry , up until the late s, germanium was the dominant semiconductor material for transistors and other semiconductor devices, rather than silicon. Germanium was initially considered the more effective semiconductor material, as it was able to demonstrate better performance due to higher carrier mobility.
A breakthrough in silicon semiconductor technology came with the work of Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla , who developed the process of surface passivation by thermal oxidation at Bell Labs in the late s. In the late s, Mohamed Atalla utilized his surface passivation and thermal oxidation methods to develop the metal—oxide—semiconductor MOS process, which he proposed could be used to build the first working silicon field-effect transistor.
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