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Spreading of disease from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea has ever been reported [16]. Until present, there is still no report in human beings in Indonesia. For the Philippines , the animal infection is also existed. The infection is also usually seen in cattle [17]. Similar to Malaysia and Indonesia , until present, there is still no report in human beings from the Philippines.

“Emerging Infections: The Asia Perspective” by Jai P Narain, MBBS, MD, MPH

For Brunei and Timor Leste, there has been no report of trypanosomiasis in both human beings and animal. Trypanosomiasis in Singapore. For Singapore , there has been no report of trypanosomiasis in both human beings and animal. However, there are some reports on trypanosomiasis researches from Singapore [].

This implies the highly developed nature of Singapore as the center of medical science in Southeast Asia. Trypanosomiasis in Southern part of China. Southern part of China is also considered tropical Southeast Asia. The main areas are Hainan and Yunnan. Of interest, there is a recent report on Trypanosome spp from Hainan.

The report is on '' Trypanosoma epinepheli n. Kinetoplastida from a farmed marine fish [20] ''.

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Although emerging human trypanosomiasis in Southeast Asia is not the present important problem. But the existence of problem in Thailand , without linkage to the disease transmission from endemic area, leads the consideration on the possibility of cross species zoonosis from local infected animals. Emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases in Southeast Asia. J Vector Borne Dis. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

Emerg Infect Dis. Gongal G. One Health approach in the South East Asia region: opportunities and challenges.

Understanding emerging infections

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. Trypanosoma evansi infection in buffaloes in North-East Thailand. Trop Anim Health Prod. Trypanosoma evansi infection in buffaloes in north-east Thailand. Field investigations. Influence of Trypanosoma evansi infection on milk yield of dairy cattle in northeast Thailand. Prev Vet Med. Cerebral trypanosomiasis in native cattle.

Vet Parasitol. With the development of modern medical technology such as critical care, innovative surgeries and cancer chemotherapy, the number of patients at risk of candidaemia has increased. The researchers identified the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and cumulative number of risk factors for invasive candidiasis as variables that predict death due to candidaemia.

This study highlights the need to monitor and reduce risk factors for candidaemia, and brings up the possible role of early initiation of antifungal therapy to decrease in-hospital mortality. Infectious diseases remain a major burden for mortality and morbidity in Singapore and the rest of Asia. At the same time, we need to manage ongoing endemic diseases such as enteroviruses and dengue, and control diseases contributed by improving medical technologies, such as candidaemia.

More research needs to be done in these areas to prevent these infectious diseases and improve clinical care. Dye C. After infectious diseases in a new era of health and development.

The largest outbreak of hand; foot and mouth disease in Singapore in the role of enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A strains. Int J Infect Dis ; e A review of Zika virus infections in pregnancy and implications for antenatal care in Singapore. Singapore Med J ; Leo YS, Chow A.

Zika virus has arrived in Singapore. Lancet Infect Dis ; Zika in Singapore: insights from One Health and social medicine. Quality of life and psychological status in survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome at 3 months postdischarge. The emergence of Lyme disease, discussed in the review by Steere, Coburn, and Glickstein 2 , followed a similar course. The infection has probably been present in North America for millennia, but it was only in the 20th century that conditions in the northeastern US changed to favor the propagation of Lyme disease.

The chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes was probably the origin of this virus, as this primate harbors strains of simian immunodeficiency virus that are closest in sequence to HIV The ability to diagnose HIV infection within the first 3 weeks of exposure may allow new opportunities for treatment and prevention, as discussed in this review series by Pilcher et al.

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The origin of this virus is unknown, but it may have been transmitted from animals to humans. A SARS-like coronavirus has been isolated from a palm civet and other animals in Guangdong Province, where the disease originated. The campaign to control SARS demonstrated the power of global mechanisms of health governance and revolutionized the response to emerging infectious diseases, as discussed in the review by Fidler 4. Some emerging infectious diseases are caused not by new pathogens, but by the re-emergence of microbes that had been successfully controlled.

The mosquito-borne dengue virus was shown in to be the causative agent of dengue fever, a disease accompanied by fever, rash, and arthralgia. Fifty years later, a new disease caused by the virus, dengue hemorrhagic fever, was identified in Southeast Asia. The Pan American Health Organization led efforts to eradicate the mosquito vector of dengue virus, Aedes aegypti , from most of Central and South America.

As a consequence, dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever were largely eliminated from all but Southeast Asia.

APEIR | Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research

Unfortunately, the mosquito-eradication programs ended in the s, leading to reinfestation of the Americas. Since then, dengue virus has been reintroduced into the Caribbean, the Pacific, Australia, and the Indian subcontinent and has appeared for the first time in China, Venezuela, and Brazil.

Intercontinental transport of car tires containing mosquito eggs has been implicated in the spread of the virus. Currently there are an estimated million cases of dengue fever and several hundred thousand cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever each year, and 2. The series article by Rothman presents the challenges involved in developing a dengue vaccine 5. As problematic as the threat of emerging infectious diseases is the emergence of drug-resistant pathogens, which can turn a conquered microbe into a new threat. Low-cost antibiotics can no longer clear infections of Escherichia coli , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Pneumococcus , Shigella , and Staphylococcus aureus.

The cost and length of treatment of many common diseases are increased, or infections may be refractory to treatment. The changing dynamics of a growing population e.

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The review by White on drug-resistant malaria illustrates the magnitude of this problem 6. The emergence of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine, once a mainstay in the prevention of malaria, has led to a global resurgence of this disease. Humans are always providing new ways to meet new pathogens. Air travel, dam construction, hot tubs, air conditioning, blood transfusion, deforestation, day care centers, and urbanization are some of the technological and social changes that influence the spread of microbes.

Most importantly, growth of the human population continues, providing interactions with other humans and the environment on an unprecedented scale, and ensuring the propagation of new diseases.