Thus, the important issues to analyze corpus, exploring word frequency lists, exploring concordances lines, and discourse are stressfully discussed. Similarly, Scott explains the importance of corpus software such as to sorting data and to showing concordances, word lists, and key word lists. The other issue that is stated in this section is how a corpus is used to explore patterns by Hunston. Hunston defines the idea of patterns and the difficulty of patterns to spot and how to read concordances are mentioned.
Tribble also explains the idea of concordances. In line with this, concordances before the computer age, approaches, tools, and resources for computer generated concordance, and working with corpus data are discussed. The other important issue that is discussed by Lu is corpus software and language development. According to Lu p. Thus, Lu addresses measuring language development, using corpus to find more about first and second language development.
The intent of section four is to introduce the use of corpus for a language research. Moon explains the way to learn and to search lexis, phraseologies, and different kinds of meanings context meaning, polysemy, metaphor, connotation, and ideology , sets and synonyms lexical sets, synonyms, annotations, and opposite through corpus.
In addition, lexis in spoken language phraseology, meaning, and usage is also highlighted. The idea of multi-word units and the reasons of studying multi-word units meaning and n-gram to phraseology variations are also discussed by Greaves and Warren. They explain the idea of multi-word unit and the reasons of studying multi-word units. It is also mentioned that corpus research tells us about phraseology that we do not before. Conrad also discusses the contribution of corpus to grammar. Hence understanding grammar through patterns and contexts, types of grammatical patterns, investigating multiple features, the grammar of speech and new challenges for judging acceptability are mentioned.
Similarly, Biber explains corpus to registers and genres.
According to Biber, corpus has register perspectives and genre perspectives. In addition, it is also stated corpus studies and multi-dimensional studies show linguistic variations. Handford explains corpus to specialist genre. According to the author, general corpus linguistics is criticized because of its decontextualized, its approach, and its size.
Besides, the rational of genre approach, methodological advantage of specialized corpora in analyzing genre, corpus to academic genres, professional genres, non- institutional genres are briefly covered by the author. Likwise, Thornbury explicates the limitations of using a corpus in the study of discourse, the limitations of corpus in the study discourse and the kind of data we need to study discourse. Ruhleman addresses the issue of pragmatics and related issues such as semantic prosody and pragmatic phenomena.
The last issue of this section is corpus to creativity by Anh Vo and Carter.
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Hence, it is explained that corpus linguistics facilitates creative writing and creative studies. The main intent of section five is to explain using corpus for language pedagogy and methodology. This section starts with the work of Cheng, what can a corpus can tell us about language teaching. Hence the author demonstrates corpora and language teaching, corpus-driven form and function, corpus evidence as teaching materials, tasks for language learning, bridging corpus linguistics and language teaching.
Walsh explains features of spoken and written corpora in creating language teaching materials and syllabus. Thus, integrating corpus-based approaches in syllabus, corpus based materials to teach speaking and listening skills, using corpus-based materials to teach reading and writing, and exploiting learner corpora are explained.
Chambers devotes on data-driven learning. The author provides detail examples and activities that can be applied in language teaching classrooms through data driven learning approach.
Furthermore, Sripicharn discusses preparing learners for using language corpora. Therefore, finding out what students know and providing general information, identifying task, objectives and types of corpora, preparing corpus data, corpus analysis tools and interpreting corpus results are explained.
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The sixth section, designing corpus-based material for the language classroom, starts by the work of Jones and Durrant, what can a corpus tell us about vocabulary teaching material. The authors explain that corpus offers list of key vocabulary that are used to course design and material writing. Thus, vocabulary importance is recognized as reliable data for language learners. In the same way, corpus also plays a key role to develop material to teach grammar.
Hence, Hughes discusses corpus to grammar teaching materials, and the author considers benefits of using corpus to teach grammar, and future development perspectives. It is stated that corpus is crucial to design a course book and syllabus by considering various issues.
Walter also investigates using corpora to write dictionaries. Lexicographers are highly interested to use corpus linguistics to prepare dictionary.
Flowerdew also explains corpus-based and corpus-driven approaches to design writing instruction. Coxhead deals with using corpus for academic purpose. It is explained that teachers can build and use corpus linguistics for research purpose and language teaching profession. The seventh section aims at describing using corpora to study literature and translation. The main aim of this section is to explore how to design, use and analyze parallel and comparable corpora.
Similarly, Kubler and Aston discuss the application of corpora to translation. Corpus also has implication to poetry and drama. Hence, Mclntyre and Walker state the application corpus to language of poetry and drama. The last issue of this section, how can corpora be used to explore literary speech representation is introduced by Amador-Moreno.
The author explores similarities and difference of real and fictional speech and the role of corpora to compare real represented speech. The eighth section introduces applying corpus linguistics to other areas of research.
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This section starts with the work of Andersen, how to use corpus linguistics in sociolinguistics. Accordingly, it is mentioned that corpus and sociolinguistics are the two related and historical distinct research traditions. The author claims that corpora and corpus methods can be helpful to researcher who wants to pursue a sociolinguistics research questions. The other topic which is explained in this section is the use of corpus linguistics in forensic linguistics by Cotterill.
Besides, the author discusses methodological challenges and limitations in forensic linguistic analysis. Adel also covers the use of corpus linguistics in the study of political discourse. The interrelation between corpora and political genres, and corpora techniques for exploring political discourses are also explained.
Health communication studies start to recognize corpus methodology. Thus, Atkins and Harvey elucidate how to use corpus linguistics in the study of health communication. The authors focus on building a corpus of adolescent health language and techniques that are used to explore health language patterns.
Farr also explains the use of corpora in teacher education. The author mentions corpora play a great role to teacher education. Hence, the author covers corpora application in teacher education, pedagogical application of pedagogical corpora, learner corpora, and corpora of classroom language. The last chapter of this section and the hand book is the work of Baker, using corpora in language testing.
Routledge handbook of language and creativity - CentAUR
This handbook is user friendly and effective handbook. It raises one of potentially pivotal issues in English language pedagogy, second and foreign language research, and language analysis. The main contribution of this handbook is that it addresses issues step-by step on how to use corpus linguistics in language classroom, material and syllabus design, testing and language analysis accompanied by cases studies, implications and clear examples. In addition, the authors demonstrate how corpus linguistics application is widening to computational linguistics, discourse analysis, forensic linguistics, creative writing and translation.
The handbook could be considered as marvelous starting point for further in depth investigation and discussion on corpus linguistics. Moreover, detail reference books are provided in each chapter for further reading. These help readers to consider various issues of corpus linguistics application.
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Besides, the handbook provides a step by step guide how to assemble and to design different kinds of corpora. These could give the opportunity to language teachers and researchers easily duplicate or apply corpus linguistics in their research and classrooms. Hence, this handbook fills the gap that exist using corpus linguistics application in a wider contexts. This Handbook provides a wonderfully broad-ranging and stimulating exploration of this complex field and is likely to become an important reference source for all those working in this area.
Helen Spencer-Oatey, University of Warwick, UK The publisher's copy recommends the Routlege Handbook of Language and Culture as a vital resource for scholars and students interested in language and culture'. That it certainly is. The coverage is broad and there is much of immediate practical use.